Tsunesaburo Makiguchi
Value-Creating Education

Rather than provide knowledge itself, we must encourage the joy and excitement that arise from learning.

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Tsunesaburo Makiguchi
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Colonial Era

[The following are sample pages from textbooks used to teach Korean children the Japanese language during the period when Korea was annexed to the Empire of Japan (1910-1945). The children were taught that they were part of Japan, and thus they had no national flag but the Japanese hinomaru flag.]


Elementary School Morals Textbook Volume 1
Issued in 1922 by the Korean Government-General, Seoul.

"This student followed the teacher's instructions very well."

Elementary School Japanese Textbook Volume 8
Issued in 1924 by the Korean Government-General, Seoul.

"The Japanese nation worship the Ise Shrine very devoutly. There is no one who does not wish to pay pilgrimage once in his lifetime.
   There are many branch shrines of the Ise Shrine in Korea as well. They perform ceremonies every year to show their devotion to the gods."

Textbook issued by the Office of the Japanese Governor-General in Korea, 1924

Lesson 20 The National Flag

"This picture shows children looking at the hinomaru flag flying in front of houses on National Foundation Day [Feb 11]. The children are talking excitedly.
   All countries have a flag that symbolizes that country. This is called the national flag. The hinomaru flag is our country's national flag.
   On our country's commemorative days and national holidays, the national flag is flown in schools and homes. In addition, the ships of our nation also fly it when they are berthed in foreign ports.
   The national flag is the symbol of the country, so we must treasure the hinomaru flag.
   In addition, as a people who understand courtesy, we must also pay respect to the national flags of foreign countries."